Sexually Transmitted Infections
STIs are spread predominantly by sexual contact, including vaginal, anal and oral sex. Some STIs can
also be spread through non-sexual means such as via blood or blood products. Many STIs—including
syphilis, hepatitis, HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, herpes, and HPV—can also be transmitted from
mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth.
A person can have an STI without having obvious symptoms of the disease. Common symptoms of STIs
include vaginal discharge, urethral discharge or burning in men, genital ulcers, and abdominal pain.