Sexually Transmitted Infections
STIs are spread predominantly by sexual contact, including vaginal, anal and oral sex. Some STIs can
also be spread through non-sexual means such as via blood or blood products. Many STIs—including
syphilis, herpes B, HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, herpes, and HPV—can also be transmitted from
mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth.
A person can have an STI without having obvious symptoms of the disease. Common symptoms of STIs
include vaginal discharge, urethral discharge or burning in men, genital ulcers, and abdominal pain.